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African swine fever death rate as high as 100 %, why there is no vaccine?

African swine fever is a strong infectious disease. Once pigs are infected, the fatality rate can be as high as 100%. At the on-site meeting of the “National Pig Green Development Technology Integration and Demonstration Collaborative Innovation Project” concluded in Zhumadian City, Henan Province on September 11th, Zhang Hongfu, researcher and chief scientist of the Institute of Animal Science of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that China is excessive in animal disease prevention and control. Relying on vaccines and drugs, the future should be turned to biosafety prevention and control, such as improving the biosafety facilities and personnel quality of pig farms.


The viral genome is complex in structure and most of the protein functions are unknown.


From the first epidemic in early August to September 10, there have been 15 cases of African swine fever in China. The epidemic involved Liaoning, Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Heilongjiang provinces. The epidemic situation is in a prevailing situation. Since the first report of the African swine fever epidemic in Kenya in 1921, safe and effective vaccines have not yet been developed.


Sun Yuan, an associate researcher at the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that the delay in the vaccine is closely related to the biological characteristics of the virus itself. "The virus has a complex structure and a large genome. At present, 24 genotypes have been reported; the virus encodes more than 150 proteins, of which more than half of the proteins are still unclear. African swine fever virus has strong resistance to the external environment and is resistant to low temperatures. It is sensitive to high temperatures and can survive for a long time in blood, feces, uncooked pork products, cured meat and simmered water, and can survive for several years or even decades in frozen meat."


African swine fever virus does not infect people. It can be effectively inactivated in 20 minutes at 60 degrees Celsius. Many disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and Wei Ke are very effective against this virus.


Sun Yuan said that the source of African swine fever is mainly domestic pigs, wild boars, soft mites and contaminated feed, pork products, vehicles, tires and syringes infected with the virus; direct or indirect contact, soft bites Wait.


Pig health is closely related to farm layout and biosecurity measures


According to statistics, in 2017, China's pork production accounted for 62% of total meat production, accounting for 48% of global production. In 2016, the output value of live pigs was about 1.35 trillion yuan.


"Disease is the biggest limiting factor for pig production in China. The health of pigs is the key to the success of farming." Wang Lixian, a researcher at the Beijing Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that the layout of the farm, the choice of crafts and the health of the pigs, Biosafety is closely related. But how many pig farms in China, cooling, insulation and ventilation can meet the needs of pigs? “Even a large fluctuation in temperature will cause problems on many farms.”


Wang Lixian said that in order to prevent pigs from getting sick, in addition to large-scale use of vaccines, large amounts of antibiotics are used in feed and drinking water in China, which not only threatens biosafety, but also causes food safety problems.


To punish a sick pig, the state financial subsidy is 800 yuan. At present, the price of pigs on the market is about 6 yuan / kg, and the pigs that are slaughtered are about 200 pounds. "For pig farmers, if the pig farm is infected with African swine fever, it is likely to be unwilling to report, but secretly sell it. According to the "African swine fever epidemic plan", the African swine fever epidemic is found, and the epidemic point is 3 km. The pigs inside must be culled, and many pig farmers are reluctant to report it." Experts are generally worried about this.


African swine fever may change the status of pig raising in our country


Due to the large amount of pig breeding in China and the poor bio-safety conditions, coupled with the large amount of cross-regional transportation of pigs, vehicles and tires may become sources of infection. Therefore, the risk of African swine fever spreading in China is extremely high.


Sun Yuan said that in addition to improving the biosafety measures of pig farms, it is necessary to strictly control the key links of the introduction of African swine fever and initiate relevant investigation and monitoring work. "In the event of an outbreak, immediate disposal measures such as blockade, culling, harmless treatment, disinfection, etc. shall be taken to harm all dead and culled pigs. At the same time, all pigs and susceptible animals, products are prohibited from being transported or Flow out of the blockade."


Sun Yuan and other experts believe that through timely and accurate monitoring and strict and effective blockade, culling, harmless treatment and other measures, it is possible to control the African swine fever epidemic. The experience of prevention and control in Spain and other countries also proves this. .


"African swine fever may change the status of pig raising in our country. The breeding industry should shift from vaccine and drug dependence to biosafety prevention and control." Zhang Hongfu said that through the implementation of biosafety prevention and control measures, coupled with improved breeding, green and efficient feed, and excrement It is entirely possible to use safely cultured, “no-resistant” pork, such as resource utilization, greening and slaughtering, and other green technologies.

 
 

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